Anaplastic and Refractory Thyroid Cancer
Thyroid cancer is caused by the abnormal growth of cells in the thyroid gland tissues and is the fifth most common malignancy in women. Although most thyroid cancers are curable, prognosis is very poor for anaplastic and refractory thyroid cancers (ATRC). Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare, aggressive, and highly metastatic thyroid cancer that makes up less than 2% of all thyroid cancers. The relapse rate of other thyroid cancers is ~20%, with up to 30% of relapsing tumors becoming refractory to all currently available therapies. For ARTC, few effective therapies are available, and life expectancy is less than a year. ICAM-1 overexpression is observed consistently in all these more advanced thyroid cancers, and high expression of ICAM-1 has been associated with lower survival rates in these patients. AffyImmune has chosen ARTC as the initial cancer for treatment with AIC100 and has received Orphan Drug Designation for this indication.
Gastric cancer is a disease where malignant cells form in the lining of the stomach. Gastric cancer is the fifth most commonly diagnosed cancer and third leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with a higher incidence in men. Since early stages of gastric cancer are usually asymptomatic, patients are often diagnosed only at later stages of the disease. This is one of the primary reasons for the low survival rates and poor prognosis. Elevated ICAM-1 expression is highly correlated with metastasis, recurrence, and low survival in gastric cancer patients.
Triple Negative Breast Cancer
Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer in which tumor cells do not express either the estrogen or progesterone receptors, nor the human epidermal growth factor receptor HER2. TNBC accounts for up to 25% of breast cancers and is associated with younger age at diagnosis. This particular subtype of breast cancer is highly aggressive, with poor short-term prognosis and a lack of targeted therapies. TNBC is also associated with increased risk of local recurrence and metastasis. ICAM-1 has been shown to be highly expressed in TNBC relative to other breast cancer subtypes.